SuperSummary, a modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, offers high-quality study guides for challenging works of literature. Plot Summary Life on the Mississippi is a work that is a combination of historical narrative and memoir.
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State-Specific Healthy Life Expectancy at Age 65 Years — United States, — Healthy life expectancy HLE is a population health measure that combines mortality data with morbidity or health status Analysis life on the mississippi to estimate expected years of life in good health for persons at a given age.
HLE accounts for quantity and quality of life and can be used to describe and monitor the health status of populations. HLE estimates for countries have been used for predicting future health service needs, evaluating health programs, and identifying trends and inequalities 1but to date, few studies have reported HLE at the state level for the United States 2.
Those calculations indicate that, during —, females had a greater HLE than males at age 65 years in every state and DC.
HLE was greater for whites than for blacks in all states from which sufficient data were available and DC, except in Nevada and New Mexico. These results can be used as a baseline for states to monitor changes in the HLE of persons aged 65 years as they age and identify health disparities among subpopulations.
State-specific HLE estimates were calculated from three data sources: Life expectancy LE i. HLE estimates the equivalent healthy years that a person can expect to live on the basis of the current mortality rates and prevalence distribution of health status in the population.
An abridged life table method was used to estimate LE using data by 5-year age intervals 4. To estimate LE, age-specific death rates were calculated using the mid-year U. Census population and the number of deaths in the NVSS.
Age-specific death rates were used to estimate the number of survivors, the total number of person-years lived within each age interval, and the average expected years of life remaining per person at the beginning of each age interval.
To estimate HLE at a given age, the prevalence of being healthy at the beginning of the age interval and the total number of person-years lived by a cohort in that age interval were calculated. The products for each age interval and for all subsequent age intervals were summed to obtain the total number of years lived in healthy state at a given age.
This sum was then divided by the number of persons alive at each age interval. To assess disparities, differences in HLE were measured between subpopulations. HLE for males at age 65 years varied from a low of HLE for females at age 65 years varied from a low of HLE was greater for females than for males in all states, with the difference ranging from 0.
By race, HLE estimates for whites were lowest among southern states Figure 2. For blacks, HLE estimates were comparatively low throughout the United States, except for a few southwestern states.
For whites aged 65 years, HLE varied from a low of For the remaining states, HLE for blacks aged 65 years varied from a low of 7.
The largest difference in HLE between whites and blacks was 7. For the total population at age 65 years, HLE was lowest among southern states Figure 3. For all persons at age 65 years, the highest HLE was observed in Hawaii Conversely, the number of remaining years in fair or poor health for persons aged 65 years was 6.
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Editorial Note HLE estimates in this report identified disparities by sex, race, and state among persons aged 65 years. In general, at age 65 years, HLEs within individual states varied up to 3 years by sex and up to 8 years by race.
HLEs for all persons aged 65 years varied between states by 6 years. Over the past century in the United States, a general decline in death rates has resulted in a corresponding increase in LE. Because differences in HLE by demographics might result from variations in morbidity or mortality, examining HLE as a percentage of LE reveals populations that might be enduring illness or disability for more years.
Although HLE measures do not identify the reasons for poor health or shorter lives, they provide a snapshot of the health status of a population. From this measure it is not possible to determine why some states have higher HLE than others.
Many factors influence a person's health status as they age, including 1 safe and healthy living environments, 2 healthy behaviors e. The findings in this report are subject to at least five limitations.Life on the mississippi when mark twain was a riverboat pilot was a time i wish i could have lived through!
He relates a life that was a real adventure. Then some 20 years after that he makes a voyage up the mighty river/5(). The Mississippi Kite makes a streamlined silhouette as it careens through the sky on the hunt for small prey, or dive-bombs intruders that come too close to its nest tree.
These sleek, pearly gray raptors often hunt together and nest colonially in stands of trees, from windbreaks on southern prairies to old-growth bottomlands in the Southeast (and even on city parks and golf courses).
Mark Twain's memoir Life on the Mississippi recounts the author's personal experiences as a steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River.
The book is broken up into sixty short chapters, most of which take the form of anecdotes from Twain's life. Background. Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) estimates and totals up the equivalent money value of the benefits and costs to the community of projects to establish whether they are worthwhile.
Life on the Mississippi by Mark Twain is his memoir about vital river life during the steamboat era and a remembrance of it after the Civil War.. Mark Twain () grew up Samuel Langhorne Clemens on the Mississippi River in the small town of Hannibal, Missouri.
Twain was a journalist, essayist, and writer of short stories and novels. Jul 19, · State-Specific Healthy Life Expectancy at Age 65 Years — United States, – Healthy life expectancy (HLE) is a population health measure that combines mortality data with morbidity or health status data to estimate expected years of life .