On the Governments new, and most important headline figure, known as, Progress 8, Caistor Yarborough Academy has achieved a positive progress score of 0. This means that, at GCSE, our students achieved above expectation compared to similar students across the country. This is a wonderful achievement and we are delighted as it reflects the progress made, from every different start point, between Key Stage 2 and the end of Key Stage 4. This calculates the average attainment achieved by students across their best 8 subjects, again an excellent achievement.
Universities The three major financial functions in education—budgeting, accounting, and auditing—are separate, discrete operations, but they are nonetheless closely interrelated. Budgeting is a process and plan for determining how money is to be raised and spent, as well as a document—the budget—developed and approved during the budgeting process.
Money is organized and spent according to an accounting system, using a general ledger that standardizes each spending category and accounts for its use. Handbook II, Revised is an accounting system with line codes for each category and function to make it easier for external agencies to analyze and audit school spending to ensure the legal and appropriate use of public funds.
Budgeting William Hartman, author of School District Budgetingdefines education budgeting as a "working tool" for the successful operation of states and local school districts, and as a "significant opportunity to plan the mission, improve their operations, and achieve their education objectives" p.
As such, the budgeting process allows various levels of government to "make better financial and program decisions, improve operations, and enhance relations with citizens and other stakeholders" National Advisory Council on State and Local Budgeting, p.
In more technical terms, a budget is a statement of the total educational program for a given unit, as well as an estimate of resources necessary to carry out the program and the revenues needed to cover those expenditures.
A vertical budget includes the various income and expenditure estimates by line item, function, object, and cost center in a given fiscal year, while a horizontal budget will include current estimates for a given fiscal year, compared to prior audited income and expenditures, and a projection of costs into the future.
Hence, the budget is a statement of purpose and a review of income and expenditures by function—with a timeline to explain past, current, and future financial practices.
Education agencies, like businesses and other enterprises, have experimented with various forms of budget organization: Barry Mundt et al. While helpful in tracking costs, line-item budgeting is virtually useless for planning or management, since the functions of the expenditures are not explained and the particular need, school site, and type of students being served are lost in spending aggregated by "line.
In addition, functions are subdivided e. Personnel services or salaries and benefits may be handled by function; that is, for instructional, support, or plant maintenance staff, for example. While these broad categories, objects, and processes are generally the same for education budgeting across the country, a strategic attempt has also been made to determine the most effective and efficient uses of resources.
These efforts have led to such innovations as zero-based, program-planning, and site-based budgeting, which attempt to be more mission-driven and constituent-friendly than traditional types of budgeting in education. Popular in the s and s, ZBB began with the assumption that the school system starts out yearly with a "clean slate.
Because so many costs, such as tenured teachers' salaries and benefits, are "fixed" across annual budgets, and because the programs are so complex, zero-based budgeting becomes more an exercise than a practical reality.
As Hartman explains, "ZBB … forces comparisons of and choices among programs and activities that are often difficult to compare adequately" p. In addition, most programs are not "up for grabs" on an annual basis, since, for example, schools cannot eliminate their elementary school classes, making such a requirement difficult to justify.
Used by the U. While rarely used in education, PPBS would require school districts to spell out their mission and goals, lay out alternatives to reach these objectives, attribute costs to each choice, analyze the costs, select the best option, and then build the budget around this outcome, and finally feed data back to adjust the costs to the results.
While this method sounds ideal, it often becomes so complex, and the programs so numerous, that school districts and states cannot readily sustain this approach.
Site-based school-site budgeting SBB. SBB is concerned with who will do the budgeting and where in the organizational hierarchy the decisions will be made. In attempts to bring the budgeting process closer to "end-users"—the teachers, parents, and school administrators—SBB encourages, if not requires, decision-makers in each school to examine their programs and to set their budgets to meet their particular needs as part of the process of shared decision-making.
Allan Odden et al. Under site-based budgeting, districts must determine who will serve on SBB committees; which decisions and resources are devolved to schools—and using what formulas; how much autonomy is granted to spend for local school needs; exactly how to analyze the budget at each school; and what training and support are needed to make SBB work effectively.Prospective students searching for Online Auditing Course and Class Information found the links, articles, and information on this page helpful.
Auditing Francesca Carannante Reflection Paper Chapter 1 & 2 Due Jan 24, After reading Chapter 1 and 2 I learned that auditing as defined is the process of confirming, substantiating and providing assurance services that a process of collecting. Governmental Accounting and Financial Reporting Model Legislation.
The Government Finance Officers Association, as a matter of policy, has supported the expanded use of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in state and local government accounting and financial reporting and the efforts of the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) in establishing GAAP.
Auditing Research Paper January 9, Auditing in general is an organized process of accurately finding and assessing statements regarding financial records to determine the degree of accuracy between those statements and established criteria and communicate the results to interested users and or the public.
ASQ Auditing Handbook _4th iridis-photo-restoration.com - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. For well over a decade, Nike became defined by the term ‘sweatshop labour’.
It was simply one of the principal things for which it became famous. Consequently, a good many people saw it as the epitome of uncaring capitalism. It was one of the demons of the anti-capitalist campaigners. In reality.