Determinants of productivity essay example

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Determinants of productivity essay example

It has more recently expanded to incorporate the vibrant and growing body of research in the affiliated fields of innovation and entrepreneurship. The program benefitted tremendously from Griliches' inspirational leadership, continued by Ernst Berndt after Zvi's untimely death in We have had the privilege of co-directing the program since The program has generated a remarkable volume of research activity.

It currently has 90 active members, and the program's cumulative output includes more than affiliated working papers on a wide range of topics. The Determinants of productivity essay example of the program are organized into four large project areas. This review summarizes the research in each of these four areas.

Demand Factor

Economic Research on Productivity As Paul Krugman famously quipped, "Productivity isn't everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country's ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability to raise its output per worker.

Determinants of productivity essay example

Even in the recent recession, there has been an active and ongoing debate about the long-term potential growth rate of U.

Understanding productivity growth is a central topic in economics, and one that naturally overlaps with many other NBER programs. The research by program affiliates displays a strong emphasis on the roles of research and development, patents, incentive systems, regulations, technological progress and organizational form in influencing the extent and nature of productivity growth.

In addition, the PRIE Program has long had a sharp focus on economic measurement, including inputs, outputs, prices, quality change, and multifactor productivity, that has been led in particular by the Conference on Research on Income and Wealth CRIW. Activities on the broad subject of productivity center on spring and summer research meetings.

These meetings allow program members to present work in progress on a variety of productivity topics. The summer meetings are split into sessions that focus on macroeconomic aspects of productivity, and on productivity issues in developing countries.

Given the breadth of program's research, we can highlight only a few examples of the research issues that program members explore. One strand of research revolves around the productivity and performance of healthcare.

For example, one recent study examines the traditional wisdom that market forces are weak in the healthcare sector, leading to a massive dispersion of performance across hospitals. The paper finds that indeed while there is a large spread of performance across hospitals, surprisingly it is comparable to the extent of dispersion in other sectors like manufacturing and retail.

The paper concludes the healthcare is far less of an exceptional industry than is commonly believed, looking in fact rather similar to sectors like manufacturing on certain market dimensions.

Another strand of the program focuses on the importance of micro and macro forces in driving aggregate productivity. Researchers often highlight two ways aggregate productivity can rise: One recent paper on this topic investigated the role of adjustment costs and volatility in explaining the dispersion and average of productivity across over 30 developing countries.

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This highlights how removing distortions and adjustment costs, as well as reducing market turbulence and uncertainty, can aid the promotion of successful firms. A third strand of work centers around management and managers. For example, one recent paper 6 shows how the structure of top management in U.

General managerial positions have shrunk as a share of the total, and the pay of such managers has fallen as more specialized product and functional managers have joined.

The rules of the game can be changed to reverse inequality

Another study on a related topic detailed the collection of extensive data on the daily activities of Indian CEOs. This highlights how CEO types, hours and management styles are an important driver of firm productivity, and the importance of starting to explore what these are and how to measure them.

The CRIW is also an important component of the program's research activities on productivity issues. One of its goals is to support the development of the national accounts and associated statistics.

Determinants of productivity essay example

It represents an ongoing collaboration between the statistical agencies, policy community, and academia to advance the field of economic measurement.

As such the membership of the CRIW is split between academic and non-academic members. The CRIW is funded by the statistical agencies and the organization has a sixteen person executive committee, chaired by Charles Hulten, that elects the membership and arranges for individual conferences.

Infor example, one focus was on the emerging value of "big data," including both administrative records from government agencies and transaction and customer data from private firms.

The CRIW also sponsors an annual conference. Current Knowledge and Challenges.Importance Of Employee Productivity. Print Reference this. Published: Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student.

This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. You can view samples of our professional The physical conditions that tenant experience are important determinants of satisfaction.

Productivity: a key concept in Economics

The determinants which can cause decrease in demand include taste, income, number of consumers, consumers’ expectation and others. For example, taste of consumers has changed suddenly. They do not like apple but prefer orange. The trickle-down notion— along with its theoretical justification, marginal productivity theory— needs urgent rethinking.

That theory attempts both to explain inequality— why it occurs— and to justify it— why it would be beneficial for the economy as a whole. 6 List and describe four determinants of productivity ANS The four determinants from ECONOMICS Econ 13 at University of California, Irvine.

Find Study Resources. Main Menu; by School; by Subject; Give an example of a negative externality and an example of a positive externality%(89). The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of an economy is a measure of total production.

More precisely, it is the monetary value of all goods and services produced within a country or region in a specific time period. Published: Mon, 5 Dec Foreign direct investment (FDI) is an activity in which an investor resident in one country has a lasting interest in, and a large influence on the management of an entity resident in another country (OECD, ).

The NBER Productivity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship Program