GNU Free Documentation License Chapter 01 - The Crises of the Middle Ages The Middle Ages was a period of approximately one thousand years of history; generally accepted as spanning from the fall of the Roman Empire toward the end of the 5th century to the Protestant reformation in the 16th century. This period began with a demographic downturn at the end of the Roman imperial era, with European populations shrinking and many cities and rural estates abandoned.
A mosaic showing Alexander the Great battling Darius III The Hellenic civilisation was a collection of city-states or poleis with different governments and cultures that achieved notable developments in government, philosophy, science, mathematics, politics, sports, theatre and music.
Athens was a powerful Hellenic city-state and governed itself with an early form of direct democracy invented by Cleisthenes ; the citizens of Athens voted on legislation and executive bills themselves.
Athens was the home of Socrates Platoand the Platonic Academy. By the late 6th century BC, all the Greek city states in Asia Minor had been incorporated into the Persian Empirewhile the latter had made territorial gains in the Balkans such as MacedonThracePaeoniaetc.
In the course of the 5th century BC, some of the Greek city states attempted to overthrow Persian rule in the Ionian Revoltwhich failed. This sparked the first Persian invasion of mainland Greece.
At some point during the ensuing Greco-Persian Warsnamely during the Second Persian invasion of Greeceand precisely after the Battle of Thermopylae and the Battle of Artemisiumalmost all of Greece to the north of the Isthmus of Corinth had been overrun by the Persians,  but the Greek city states reached a decisive victory at the Battle of Plataea.
With the end of the Greco-Persian wars, the Persians were eventually decisively forced to withdraw from their territories in Europe. The Greco-Persian Wars and the victory of the Greek city states directly influenced the entire further course of European history and would set its further tone.
|Great power - Wikipedia||It was less than 2 million inand about 4 million in The growing population stimulated economic growth, accelerated the commercialisation of agriculture, increased the production and export of wool, encouraged trade, and promoted the growth of London.|
|The Spanish Empire||These characteristics have often been treated as empirical, self-evident to the assessor.|
|ADDITIONAL MEDIA||Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe. It was held in Vienna from 1 Octoberto 9 June|
The Peloponnesian Wars ensued, and the Peloponnesian League was victorious. Subsequently, discontent with Spartan hegemony led to the Corinthian War and the defeat of Sparta at the Battle of Leuctra. Hellenic infighting left Greek city states vulnerable, and Philip II of Macedon united the Greek city states under his control.
The son of Philip II, known as Alexander the Greatinvaded neighboring Persiatoppled and incorporated its domains, as well as invading Egypt and going as far off as Indiaincreasing contact with people and cultures in these regions that marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period.
After the death of Alexander, his empire split into multiple kingdoms ruled by his generals, the Diadochi. The Diadochi fought against each other only three major kingdoms remained: Ptolemaic Egyptthe Seleucid Empire and Macedonia kingdom.
These kingdoms spread Greek culture to regions as far away as Bactria.
First governed by kingsthen as a senatorial republic the Roman RepublicRome finally became an empire at the end of the 1st century BC, under Augustus and his authoritarian successors.
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in AD, under the emperor Trajan The Roman Empire had its centre in the Mediterranean, controlling all the countries on its shores; the northern border was marked by the Rhine and Danube rivers.
In the 4th century, the emperors Diocletian and Constantine were able to slow down the process of decline by splitting the empire into a Western part with a capital in Rome and an Eastern part with the capital in Byzantium, or Constantinople now Istanbul.
Whereas Diocletian severely persecuted Christianity, Constantine declared an official end to state-sponsored persecution of Christians in with the Edict of Milanthus setting the stage for the Church to become the state church of the Roman Empire in about Decline of the Roman Empire[ edit ] Main articles: Gibbon said that the adoption of Christianity, meant belief in a better life after death, and therefore made people lazy and indifferent to the present.
Bowersock has remarked,  "we have been obsessed with the fall: Some other notable dates are the Battle of Adrianople inthe death of Theodosius I in the last time the Roman Empire was politically unifiedthe crossing of the Rhine in by Germanic tribes after the withdrawal of the legions to defend Italy against Alaric Ithe death of Stilicho infollowed by the disintegration of the western legions, the death of Justinian Ithe last Roman Emperor who tried to reconquer the west, inand the coming of Islam after Many scholars maintain that rather than a "fall", the changes can more accurately be described as a complex transformation.The Ottoman Empire during the 19th century was still a considerable power, with a great extension of territories over Europe, Asia and Africa; but the empire was in a condition of decline and during this period lost progressively its influence, and the majority of his territories were conquered by other powers.
History of Europe - The Middle Ages: The period of European history extending from about to – ce is traditionally known as the Middle Ages.
The term was first used by 15th-century scholars to designate the period between their own time and the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The earliest appearance of anatomically modern people in Europe has been dated to the 35, BC.
Evidence of permanent settlement dates from the 7th millennium BC in Bulgaria, Romania and Greece. The Neolithic reached Central Europe in the 6th millennium BC and parts of Northern Europe in the 5th and 4th millennium BC.
There is no prehistoric culture that covers the whole of Europe.
4 Catholic are Austria, Belgium, France, 2. Ireland, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Table 1 shows the countries in this study, and reports the percentage Protestant and Catholic in each country (at the.
The 16th century Language and learning in 16th-century Europe. The cultural field linking the Middle Ages and the early modern period is vast and complex in every sense. The history of Europe covers the peoples (or by some scholars, before that) in the 5th century to the beginning of the early modern period in the 16th century, marked by the consolidated during the period of British maritime hegemony in the 19th century, became the largest empire in history because of the improved ocean transportation.