It was not used in the eighteenth century when English speakers commonly referred to a process of becoming "enlightened.
It was not used in the eighteenth century when English speakers commonly referred to a process of becoming "enlightened. They were received by a young post-graduate student Samuel Johnsonof Guilford, Connecticut, who studied them. He found that they contradicted all his hard-learned Puritan learning.
He wrote that, "All this was like a flood of day to his low state of mind",  and that "he found himself like one at once emerging out of the glimmer of twilight into the full sunshine of open day".
Two years later in as a Yale Tutor, Johnson introduced a new curriculum into Yale using the donated Dummer books. Enlightenment ideas were introduced to the colonists and diffused through Puritan educational and religious networks especially through Yale College in According to the founding fathers, the United States should be a country where peoples of all faiths could live in peace and mutual benefit.
James Madison summed up this ideal in saying, "Conscience is the most sacred of all property. The passage of the new Connecticut Constitution on October 5,overturned the year-old "Standing Order" and The Connecticut Charter ofwhose provisions dated back to the founding of the state in and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut ; it has been proposed as a date for the triumph if not the end of the American Enlightenment: Intellectual currents[ edit ] Between and a great intellectual change took place that changed the British Colonies of America from a distant backwater into a leader in the fields of moral philosophy, educational reform, religious revival, industrial technology, science, and, most notably, political philosophy.
It saw a consensus on a "pursuit of happiness" based political philosophy. Architecture[ edit ] Afterthe Federal-style of American Architecture began to diverge from the Georgian style and became a uniquely American genre; inthe American architect Ithiel Town designed and in — built the first Gothic Style church in North America, Trinity Church on the Green in New Haven, predating the English Gothic revival by a decade.
In the fields of literature, poetry, music, and drama some nascent artistic attempts were made, particularly in pre-war Philadelphia, but American non-popular culture in these fields was largely imitative of British culture for most of the period and is generally considered not very distinguished.
Republicanism[ edit ] Politically, the age is distinguished by an emphasis upon economic libertyrepublicanism and religious toleranceas clearly expressed in the United States Declaration of Independence.
Attempts to reconcile science and religion resulted in a rejection of prophecy, miracle, and revealed religion, resulting in an inclination toward deism among some major political leaders of the age.
American republicanism emphasized consent of the governed, riddance of the aristocracy, and fear of corruption. It represented the convergence of classical republicanism and English republicanism of 17th century Commonwealthmen and 18th century English Country Whigs. Pocock explained the intellectual sources in America: European sources[ edit ] Sources of the American Enlightenment are many and vary according to time and place.
As a result of an extensive book trade with Great Britain, the colonies were well acquainted with European literature almost contemporaneously. A particularly important English legal writer was Sir William Blackstonewhose Commentaries on the Laws of England served as a major influence on the American Founders and is a key source in the development Anglo-American common law.
May demonstrate that Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding was far more widely read than were his political Treatises. David Hume's Essays and his History of England were widely read in the colonies,  and Hume's political thought had a particular influence on James Madison and the Constitution.
Hutcheson's ideas of ethics, along with notions of civility and politeness developed by the Earl of Shaftesburyand Addison and Richard Steele in their Spectatorwere a major influence on upper-class American colonists who sought to emulate European manners and learning.
Both informed early American ideas of government and were major influences on the Constitution. Voltaire 's histories were widely read but seldom cited.
Rousseau 's influence was marginal. Noah Webster used Rousseau's educational ideas of child development to structure his famous Speller. A German influence includes Samuel Pufendorfwhose writings were also commonly cited by American writers. Liberalism and republicanism[ edit ] Since the s, historians have debated the Enlightenment's role in the American Revolution.
Before the consensus was that liberalismespecially that of John Lockewas paramount; republicanism was largely ignored. Pocock who argued in The Machiavellian Moment that, at least in the early eighteenth-century, republican ideas were just as important as liberal ones.
Pocock's view is now widely accepted. Cornell University Professor Isaac Kramnick, on the other hand, argues that Americans have always been highly individualistic and therefore Lockean.
They especially followed the development of republican ideas in England. The Whig canon and the neo-Harringtonians, John MiltonJames Harrington and SidneyTrenchardGordon and Bolingbroketogether with the Greek, Roman, and Renaissance masters of the tradition as far as Montesquieuformed the authoritative literature of this culture; and its values and concepts were those with which we have grown familiar: A neoclassical politics provided both the ethos of the elites and the rhetoric of the upwardly mobile, and accounts for the singular cultural and intellectual homogeneity of the Founding Fathers and their generation.Online Library of Liberty.
A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc. The American Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in the thirteen American colonies in the 17th to 18th century, which led to the American Revolution, and the creation of the American iridis-photo-restoration.com American Enlightenment was influenced by the 17th-century European Enlightenment and its own native American iridis-photo-restoration.coming to James MacGregor Burns, the spirit of the .
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Since Ruth has written seriously and/or frivolously for almost every national newspaper in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom and appears frequently on radio and . One evening over dinner, I began to joke, as I often had before, about writing an essay called “Men Explain Things to Me.” Every writer has a stable of ideas that never make it to the racetrack, and I’d been trotting this pony out recreationally every once in a while.
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