Palenquero also Palenque is a Spanish-based creole spoken in Colombia. The ethnic group which speaks this creole consisted only of 2, people in It is spoken in Colombiain the village of San Basilio de Palenque which is south and east of Cartagenaand in some neighborhoods of Barranquilla. The village was founded by fugitive slaves Maroons and Native Americans.
The author of this article is a teacher of English and History at a Caribbean Saturday Supplementary School in London, attended largely by students of African and Caribbean origin, with ages ranging from 5 to The article explores the question: What are the advantages of valuing Creole in the school when the teaching is aimed at the acquisition of standard English?
Several answers are given. The first has to do with cognitive reasons: The second answer is concerned with issues of identity: Black people in Britain already face prejudice, discrimination and negative stereotyping in the media, and their history and culture are not sufficiently regarded by society in general, including the schools.
Another benefit of using Creole in the classroom is that children enjoy it, and this increases their motivation and enthusiasm pidgins and creoles essay help learning. Although some parents oppose the use of Creole in education because of the dominant standard language ideology, many others support the idea.
This short booklet 10 pages first describes the place of Jamaican Creole JC and English in Jamaica, and the social and linguistic relationships between them. The author notes that in talking about the role of JC in language education one is actually talking about the role of JC in teaching English.
She argues that the first step is to acknowledge the existence of the two languages in Jamaica and how they complement each other, and to teach the appropriate contexts of use of each of them. Pollard believes that the main goal of teachers should be teaching English so that children can become bilingual.
She recommends literature as an important resource for teachers, particularly in making students aware of the distinctions between JC and English, and also suggests the use of translation activities. The author reports that a large proportion of Jamaican students come to school as monolingual speakers of JC with little exposure to English.
Up tofewer than half of the candidates from Jamaica who sat for the Caribbean Examinations Council exams passed in English p. It could at least lead to a lessening of the culture shock experienced by some children when they first arrive at school and the feeling of alienation this often engenders.
The chapter continues with a discussion of recent calls from different interest groups for the place of JC in the education system to be formalized. There have been strong reactions against these calls by the media and the general public, expressing the following concerns: The author observes pp.
The first view is to use Creole as a medium of instruction. This view does not deny the importance of English, but rather promotes bilingual education.
Another related perspective is that Creole should be used orally in the schools to facilitate ease of transition and early learning, but English should be introduced early and take over as the medium of instruction as soon as students are proficient enough in it. The second view is to teach Creole in schools.
This view is often misunderstood to mean teaching the language to children who already know it. However, it really refers to teaching about the language, its varieties, and its written form, much as English-speaking students are taught English in other countries.
According to this view, English should remain the medium of instruction, but teachers should use Creole where necessary to make sure their students understand the subject matter. Of course, as Christie points out, many teachers have been using Creole informally in this way for a long time, both consciously and unconsciously.
This view is the one currently advocated by the Ministry of Education. The ROSE Reform of Secondary Education programme endorsed by the Ministry also proposes that students should be allowed to express themselves freely, employing whatever variety makes them comfortable in the classroom and outside.
In other words, while English should be the sole formal medium of education, teachers should help their pupils to acquire it by making it easier for them to learn all subjects and also by making them feel less self-conscious about the language they bring to school.
This policy comes a long way from the days when Creole was officially banned from classrooms. Christie goes on to mention some practical criticisms of each of these views — some concerning costs of classroom materials and training teachers and others concerning negative public attitudes.
The linguistic problems also exist with regard to the difficulty of separating Creole and English, and the fact that a significant number of children would not be familiar with a standardized Creole.
Rather, it is going where they are, in an effort to improve their status in society by helping them to gain more from their schooling, including more English.
The aim is to have learning designed for them rather than in spite of them. The real issue today is not whether Creole should be taken seriously into account in educational planning but rather whether we can afford not to take it seriously into account in one way or another.
This section first describes the use of creole languages as the medium of instruction to teach initial literacy in three different countries: Christie summarized the most important lessons that Jamaicans can learn from these cases p.
Learning to read and write in Creole initially does not negatively affect the learning of the official language. Learners readily transfer reading and writing skills learned in Creole to learning to read and write the official European language.
Teaching children about Creole is a useful means of overcoming the stigma traditionally attached to it. She points out that many African Americans do not like to see AAE characterized as unique and substantially different from ME because it once again sets them apart from other Americans.
Green says such misconceptions and negative attitudes toward AAE can be countered to some extent by more clear descriptions of its rules and patterns in order to show that it is a legitimate variety, and not slang or incorrect English.
After a discussion of attitudes toward AAE and employment, Green goes into the topic of education.Vorwort dissertation defense russia vs nato comparison essay food and drug safety essay pidgins and creoles essay help akrobatik sayyessayword mp3 le contract social rousseau livre 1 explication essay the wooster group essay psychischer determinismus beispiel essay amandinea punctata descriptive essay shylock speech essay about healthy creative.
A Spanish creole, or Spanish-based creole language, is a creole language (contact language with native speakers) for which Spanish serves as its substantial lexifier..
A number of creole languages are influenced to varying degrees by the Spanish language, including the Philippine creole varieties known as "Chavacano", Palenquero, and Bozal Spanish.
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Unlike pidgins, creoles have fully developed vocabulary and patterned grammar. Most linguists believe that a creole develops through a process of nativization of a pidgin when children of acquired pidgin-speakers learn and use it as their native language. This view maintains that the obvious similarities between the world’s pidgins and creoles arose on independent but parallel lines due to the fact that they all are derived from languages of Indo-European stock and, in the case of the Atlantic varieties, due to their sharing a common West African substratum.
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