The galipoli campaign

Following the failure of the initial attack plan, an eight month ground war ensued across the Gallipoli peninsula, characterised by a disastrous underestimation by the British, of Ottoman resistance to the invasion of their homeland.

The galipoli campaign

Following the failure of the initial attack plan, an eight month ground war ensued across the Gallipoli peninsula, characterised by a disastrous underestimation by the British, of Ottoman resistance to the invasion of their homeland.

The events of April 25th formed a bitter beginning to a broader campaign which eventuated in retreat and failure for the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. Constantinople had been the capital of great empires The galipoli campaign history: Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and now Ottoman.

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After the founding of the modern Republic of Turkey inConstantinople was renamed Istanbul. In order to arrive at Constantinople the The galipoli campaign required heavy bombardment of coastal forts along the Dardanelles, a narrow strait connecting the Aegean to the inland Sea of Marmara.

Disabling the forts would allow the main attack force to advance on Constantinople, situated on the far northeast edge of the Marmara.

On 19th February, an Anglo-French fleet attacked the Ottoman forts at the mouth of the Dardanelles with little effect. However, British Naval Command remained convinced that the Ottomans had been weakened and the main attack was launched a month later on the 18th March under Admiral John de Robeck.

The attack strategy required a fleet of ageing battleships, cruisers and destroyers to break open the strait at its narrowest point. But as the ships advanced in formation they encountered mines that remained in place after previous attempts to clear them had failed.

Three ships were sunk, three put out of action and the remaining fleet was hastily withdrawn. This defeat persuaded British Field Marshall Horatio Herbert Kitchener to redirect ground forces away from the Western Front to support a combined military and naval operation to capture the Ottoman forts along the Dardanelles' western shores.

The change in strategy was noted by Ottoman Command and gave them time to prepare basic defences against a revised attack front. Gallipoli Landings 25 April General Sir Ian Hamilton's invasion plan of 25 April was to land his infantry at strategic points along the Aegean coast of the Gallipoli peninsula.

These units would then cross to the western side and take the Ottoman forts at Kilitbahir, thereby disabling their heavy guns and allowing the navy to pass unhindered through the narrows of the Dardanelles.

They would then advance as one force, first taking the high ground of Achi Baba and the nearby village of Krithia, before crossing to capture the forts defending the narrows. The ANZAC battalions would land on Z beach, north of Kabatepe and advance inland, first capturing their own high ground objective, Hill then another hill, Maltepe, closer to the Dardanelles, before reinforcing the British attack at Kilitbahir.

The invasion was scheduled to take place before dawn, under cover of darkness, in order to retain the element of surprise. The French would make a diversionary landing at Kum Kale on the Asian side of the Dardanelles before re-embarking and crossing to meet the British at the eastern side of Cape Helles.

However the Ottoman 5th Army, directed by German General Otto Liman Von Sanders, had prepared for these 'surprise' attacks, deploying regiments spread thinly across the peninsula guarding the most likely landing sites between Helles and Suvla Bay.

And all the while keeping the main force in reserve and prepared to reinforce the specific sites of the landings. In the early hours of the 25th, with minimal casualties endured on both sides, men of the British 29th Division landed at the lightly defended S and X beaches and held them until they were taken over by the French two days later.

Further west, the V beach landing encountered a strong defence from the Ottoman forts and machine guns. The death toll in the crammed landing boats was appalling. As no landing could be made, the main force was redirected to come ashore at W beach, which was taken at great cost from a small company of Ottoman defenders who held off a force many times their number.

British casualties were horrific, involving over half a battalion of men. Further up the coast at the undefended Y beach, 2, men landed without an objective and in the absence of clear orders, were late in beginning their fortifications.

This in turn led to their being caught out by an Ottoman counter attack which killed over of the landing party and forced the remainder to evacuate. Battles for Krithia and May offensives at Anzac Cove 28 April, 8 May and 4 June Three days after the initial landings and despite heavy casualties, Hamilton ordered a renewed attack on the village of Krithia, on the 28 April.

The French held the right flank at Helles while the British approached from the south and west. The attacking force struggled against both the increasingly rugged terrain and a determined defence by Ottoman troops of their homeland.

Ultimately, exhaustion and further casualties forced a British retreat on the same day. Though relatively minor in scale, the significance of this First Battle for Krithia was in the exposure of the false assumption by British commanders of a swift victory over an inferior enemy. An initial advance was lost overnight and thousands of men were killed with no ground gained on either side.

The British strategy called for the same overly complex plan as the first attempt and gained no more ground, and again yielded horrendous casualties.

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Over a third of the men in the attack were wounded or killed. On the 19 May, despite a lack of artillery ammunition 42, Ottomans launched a surprise assault at Anzac Cove. Despite being badly outnumbered, the ANZAC force of 17, men was prepared for an assault, with strong defences and superior firepower.

A truce on the 24 May allowed for the burial of the large numbers of Ottoman dead lying in no man's land. By mid, the key problem of heavily fortified artillery in the Dardanelles persisted. On 4 June, Hamilton ordered a third attack on Krithia. The attacking force reached advanced positions under cover of darkness in an attempt to capture Ottoman frontline trenches 1, yards in front of the village.Gallipoli Campaign: Gallipoli Campaign, (February –January ), in World War I, an Anglo-French operation against Turkey, intended to force the mile- (km-) long Dardanelles channel and to occupy Constantinople.

Plans for such a venture were considered by the British authorities between and , but. The Gallipoli Campaign. The Gallipoli Campaign began as an ambitious naval strategy devised by Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty, to force the Ottoman Empire out of the Great War.

Gallipoli campaign, , Allied expedition in World War I [1] for the purpose of gaining control of the Dardanelles [2] and Bosporus straits, capturing Constantinople, and opening a .

The galipoli campaign

The campaign did divert large Turkish forces away from the Russians, but did not produce the desired strategic success. Gravestones of Gallipoli: tributes to lost Anzac heroes – interactive Read. Gallipoli Campaign: Gallipoli Campaign, in World War I, an Anglo-French operation against Turkey from February to January that was intended to force the mile-long Dardanelles channel and to occupy Constantinople.

Learn more about the Gallipoli Campaign in this article. Sep 08,  · The Gallipoli Campaign of , also known as the Battle of Gallipoli or the Dardanelles Campaign, was an unsuccessful attempt by the Allied Powers to control the sea route from Europe to.

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