The history of computers one of the best inventions ever produced

Scientific American, November 1, Advertisement A competition sponsored in by Scientific American asked for essays on the 10 greatest inventions.

The history of computers one of the best inventions ever produced

Companies compete intensely while learning from one another about changing markets and technologies through informal communication and collaboration. In a network-based system, the organizational boundaries within companies are porous, as are the boundaries between companies themselves and between companies and local institutions such as trade associations and universities.

The Route region is dominated by a small number of relatively vertically integrated corporations. Its industrial system is based on independent companies that keep largely to themselves.

Secrecy and corporate loyalty govern relations between companies and their customers, suppliers, and competitors, reinforcing a regional culture that encourages stability and self-reliance. Corporate hierarchies ensure that authority remains centralized, and information tends to flow vertically.

The boundaries between and within companies, and between companies and local institutions, thus remain distinct in the independent-company-based system.

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The performance of Silicon Valley and Route in the past few decades provides insights into regional sources of competitiveness. Understanding regional economies as industrial systems rather than as clusters of producers, and thinking of Silicon Valley and Route as examples of the two models of industrial systems -- the regional-network-based system and the independent-company-based system -- illuminate the different fates of the two economies Geography probably played as critical role in this rate as the informal social contacts.

The spatial concentration of a large number of technology-based firms enabled people to change employers without altering other aspects of their lives.

The attitude of the Valley served as a catalyst for this risk-taking. In many cases, a small coterie of employees in a firm dissatisfied with their current place of employment would gather together after work to tinker around with some of their own ideas.

They would then develop a business plan, acquire funds from venture capitalists, and seek advice from local academic sources. If they succeeded they were heroes.

If they failed, many employers were located in the same town or in a neighboring community Saxenian As people in the region became occupationally mobile, their roles became interchangeable: The result is that the engineers developed strong loyalties to technology and their fellow engineers and scientists while possessing far less allegiance to a single firm Saxenian Although it may seem paradoxical that such cooperation would occur under such obviously competitive circumstances, Saxenian notes the motto of the region: Applied scientific research was constantly reworked to develop market goods.

It is not surprising that rapid changes led to industrial diversification and contributed to the flexibility and resilience of the economic region Saxenian The lack of rigid hierarchies extended to the firms themselves.

The traditional delineations between employers and employees were not so sharp as on the East Coast, and in some cases they disappeared entirely.

Beginning with Hewlett and Packard, many of the Silicon Valley companies sought a much more interactive environment between employers and employees.

Decentralization of powers followed: His graduates had to go miles to the east coast because there were few jobs for them locally. He began to encourage some of his students to start companies near the university Not startup companies in general, but specifically those in Silicon Valley.

As soon as I had the opportunity, in the mids, I went for it. In the beginning, like everyone else there, I went through the agony of starting my own company from scratch, even though I had almost no hope of making it big. This experience, as it turned out, was very useful in a variety of ways After that-again, like many others-I threw in my lot with the "independent contractors".

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This was the right approach. I saw it all up close and, most importantly, was able to study my subject from the inside. Somewhere in my second dozen or so such contracts, I was the first employee to be hired "off the street" for a new startup, the latest in a series of ventures for its founders Main Difference of the Legal Framework of Silicon Valley Which of the main historical features of Silicon Valley has been instrumental in its development?

There have long been discussions on this subject and very different points of view have been expressed.

The history of computers one of the best inventions ever produced

Many believe the main reason is the unique features of Stanford University. Others point out that the Valley is an exceptionally favorable place to live on the Pacific coast and therefore any researcher, engineer or programmer who comes there for some reason is not usually willing to leave.

Finally, those who actually have an interest in seeing that the research park created somewhere with their participation would obtain adequate government funding usually pay attention first and foremost to the fact that the starting period for the formation of Silicon Valley occurred during the period of one of the peaks of the "Cold War," when high-tech enterprises benefited from the "windfall" of defense programs.

Of course, each in its own way is correct, as well as all of them together. The valley provides an exceptionally comfortable place to live, the climate is wonderful and the university is remarkable in all respects. Hardly anyone would dare to deny the well-known fact of the growth in military spending during the "Cold War" period.

Hence, it raises the following question:Possibly one of the greatest inventions in history that is still used today is the internet, which has made significant changes to how the day to day business is conducted.

On October 29, Lawrence Roberts had created the first two nodes to travel between UCLA and SRI International. The term Silicon Valley was used occasionally mostly byeasterners who would mention making a trip to Silicon Valley, until when it was popularized in a series of articles, ``Silicon Valley USA,'' written by Don Hoefler for Electronic News.

Quite likely it was the first time the term was used in print (Don C. Hoefler, publisher of Microelectronics News, telephone interview, 9 January ). Throughout human history, the closest thing to a computer was the abacus, which is actually considered a calculator since it required a human operator.

Computers, on the other hand, perform calculations automatically by following a series of built-in commands called software. Decisions are the heart of success and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult, perplexing and nerve racking.

This side provides useful and practical guidance for making efficient and effective decisions in both public and private life. Black Inventors through American History. George Alcorn Not many inventors have resumes as impressive as George Edward Alcorn's.

Among his credits, the African-American inventor received a B.A. in physics, a master's degree in nuclear physics and a Ph.D in atomic and molecular physics. Ever since the Wright Brothers managed to get their Wright flyer airborne in , the history of aviation has been dotted with a number of fascinating, landmark moments.

This list will run through 14 of the most innovative, important, and incredible airplanes ever to grace the skies, and tell the.

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